The Science Delusion - Dr. Rupert Sheldrake, Debunking The 10 Modern Scientific Dogmas (Myths)
The 10 Modern Scientific Dogmas (Myths)
Here are the ten misguided core beliefs that most scientists take for granted.
1 - Everything is essentially mechanical. Dogs, for example, are complex mechanisms, rather than living organisms with goals of their own. Even people are machines, 'lumbering robots', in Richard Dawkins's vivid phrase, with brains that are like genetically programmed computers.
2 - All matter is unconscious. It has no inner life or subjectivity or point of view. Even human consciousness is an illusion produced by the material activities of brains.
3 - The total amount of matter and energy is always the same (with the exception of the Big Bang, when all the matter and energy of the universe suddenly appeared).
4 - The laws of nature are fixed. They are the same today as they were at the beginning, and they will stay the same forever.
5 - Nature is purposeless, and evolution has no goal or direction.
6 - All biological inheritance is material, carried in the genetic material, DNA, and in other material structures.
7 - Minds are inside heads and are nothing but the activities of brains. When you look at a tree, the image of the tree you are seeing is not 'out there', where it seems to be, but inside your brain.
8 - Memories are stored as material traces in brains and are wiped out at death.
9 - Unexplained phenomena like telepathy are illusory.
10 - Mechanistic medicine is the only kind that really works.
Together, these beliefs make up the philosophy or ideology of materialism, whose central assumption is that everything is essentially material or physical, even minds. This belief-system became dominant within science in the late nineteenth century, and is now taken for granted. Many scientists are unaware that materialism is an assumption: they simply think of it as science, or the scientific view of reality, or the scientific worldview. They are not actually taught about it, or given a chance to discuss it. They absorb it by a kind of intellectual osmosis.